1) Unmaad (Psychosis)
2) Apsmaar (Epilepsy)
Definition: As the aggravated doshas, affecting the upper part of the body channels carrying the signals for mental functions produce symptoms as in toxication, this mental disease is known as unmaada or psychosis.
Types of Unmaad: There are five types of unmaad which are due to the excessive vitiation of the three doshas separately, simultaneous vitiation of all of them and the fifth one predominantly due to grief, while there is a sixth one which is caused by the poisons. The treatment should be therefore, according to the causative factors.
Psychoneurosis (Mada): The initial stage when the disease is not advanced is called as mada.
General Aetiological Factors:
- Eating incompatible, contaminated and unhygienic food.
- Insulting gods, teachers and Brahmins
- Mental trauma due to excessive fear or happiness or else due to unnatural activities. These are the general aetiological factors of psychosis.
Pathogenesis: Due to the above described aetiological factors, the vitiated doshas in a person with a deficiency of sattva guna get localized in the channels of the mind and afflicting its core, the seat of intelligence; quickly de-arrange the mental functions of the person.
General Clinical Features: The clinical symptoms of such an insanity are described below:
- Confused intellect
- Fickleness of the mind
- Perplexed look
- Incoherent speech
- Mental vacuum
Features’ according to the types of insanity:
Vaataj Insanity: The severely aggravated vaayu, due to intake of dry and cold diet, purgation, depletion of tissues and fasting, vitiates the hridya i.e. the site of psyche which is already affected by anxiety etc. and soon impairs the understanding and memory; vaataj insanity is thus produced.
Laughing. Smiling, dancing, singing and speaking irrelevantly, unnecessarily flinging of the limbs and weeping at inappropriate places as well as dryness, emaciation and reddish complexion of the body and provocation of the symptoms after the food has been digested are the clinical features of the vaataj insanity.
1) Pittaj Insanity: The already accumulated pitta gets aggravated by indigestion or due to the intake of acidic, sour, heart-burn producing or hot articles of food, gets localized in the hridya (mind) of an unrighteous person and as before, soon gives rise to a very severe type of insanity.
Intolerance, nudity, intimidating attitude, running away, a hot feeling of the body, anger, as well as a craving for shade, cold food and water along with a yellowish complexion are the clinical features of the insanity due to pitta dosha.
2) Kaphaj Unmaad: Kapha, along with pitta, vitiate severely due to the excessive intake of fatty food in a person doing little physical activity afflicts the brain which is the vital part and damage the seat of intelligence and memory which produces confusion in the mind and thus gives rise to kaphaj insanity.
Slow speech, dull appearance and anorexia, a liking for women and solitude, excessive sleep, vomiting and salivation, provocation of the symptoms after meals and a whitish discoloration of the nails, etc. are the clinical features of insanity due to kapha.
3) Sannipaataj Unmaad (Epilepsy due to vitiation of all the three doshas):
The excessively formidable insanity due to the simultaneous vitiation of all the three doshas because of all the vitiating aetiological factors manifests the mixed clinical features of all types of psychosis. The drugs as well as the methods of management for each type being mutually contradictory this disease becomes unmanageable.
1) Psychosis due to mental trauma: Torture by the enemies and others, loss of wealth or relatives and severe mental shock due to having been spurned by the beloved, produce a very serious disturbance of mind.
The patient talks incoherently, brings out his close secrets unconsciously and sings, laughs and weeps like a fool.
2) Psychosis due to poisoning: Blood shot eyes, loss of strength and of the functioning of the sensory and motor organs as well as the lusture, a withers appearance and a blackish discoloration of the face are the features of the psychosis due to poisoning; the patient may even lose consciousness.
3) Fatal Signs of Insanity: A patient suffering from insanity who keeps his face mostly upwards or downwards or who has lost his strength and is constantly awake is sure to die.
2) Apsmaar (Epilepsy):
Doshas aggravated due to anxiety, grief, etc. Get lodged in the channels of the brain and having caused loss of memory produce epilepsy.
It is characterized by a feeling as if entering into darkness and convulsive movements of the eyeballs and the limbs. This dreadful disease is known as apsmaar because of the loss of memory due to excessive vitiation of doshas.
1) Prodromal Features: Palpitation of the heart, a sensation of vacuum or emptiness, sweating, brooding, swooning, dullness of the senses and insomnia are its prodromal symptoms.
2) Vaataj Epilepsy: A patient of vaataj epilepsy visualizes or has an aura of all things as rough, reddish or black, and on becoming unconscious, he gets tremors, gnashes his teeth, brings out froth from the mouth and breathes rapidly.
3) Pittaj Insanity: Such patient has yellow coloured froth coming from of his mouth, yellowish discoloration of the limbs, face and eyes and he sees all the objects as yellow or red. He is distressed with thirst and hot sensation and visualizes all the worldly objects as enveloped by fire.
4) Kaphaj Epilepsy: Such patient has a whitish discoloration of the froth, limbs, face and eyes. During the aura, he feels his body to be cold and heavy and the objects are seen by him as white. He recovers from the epileptic seizures after a long time.
5) Sannipaataj Epilepsy: Epilepsy due to the vitiation of the three doshas together is characterized by the features of all the above types of apsmaar. This epilepsy type is incurable as also that in an emaciated person and a chronic patient.
If an epileptic has violent convulsions, is excessively emaciated and his eyebrows move frequently as well as his eyes get twisted in different ways, the epilepsy would cause his death.
Periodicity in epileptic attacks: The aggravated doshas produce the attacks of epilepsy at intervals of a fortnight, twelve days, and a month or at some other intervals.